Course in Food and Beverage Studies

Top Course Studies in Food and Beverage Studies

Food and Beverage Studies

A food and beverage studies course can provide individuals with the help needed to learn how to work in this industry, both in the creation and in the production facilities associated with this field.

What Is a Food and Beverage Studies?

A food and beverage studies course prepares the student to create recipes, but also learn how to prepare, sell, bottle, and otherwise market a business in this field. This type of course is often a part of a program for further culinary arts education.

What Are the Benefits of Taking a Food and Beverage Studies?

Taking this course prepares the student for advanced education in this field. The student will be better able to work in the field, as well as to handle management level positions.

How Much Does It Cost to Take a Food and Beverage Studies?

The cost will vary significantly. Taking this course as a one-off program is often inexpensive, but it can also be a part of a larger culinary arts program. This would cost significant more.

What Are the Requirements for a Food and Beverage Studies?

In some cases, students will need to enroll in a culinary arts program in order to get into these programs. In other cases, this is not necessary since the program may be available without direct admission into a culinary program.

What Kind of Career Improvement Can You Expect with Food and Beverage Studies?

Taking this course will help individuals to work in the industry or to gain a culinary arts degree. That could help with career advancement into a management position.

Why Take an Online Food and Beverage Studies?

A food and beverage studies course is one that can be taken online. Doing so allows the student to get his or her education at their own rate, as well as learn from home.

Where to Take a Food and Beverage Studies?

Food and beverage studies are available online through specialized schools, as well as through most colleges, universities, and specialized schools offering culinary arts programs.

How to Apply to a Food and Beverage Studies?

Search for your program below and contact the admissions office of the school of your choice directly by filling in this lead form.

 

 

Read More

Ice-cream Course

Italian Culinary Institute for Foreigners - ICIF
Campus Full time 8 weeks October 2017 Italy Italy Online

ICIF has created the Academic Laboratory of Master ice cream makers, giving rise to a new training programme: the Ice-cream Course. The course consists of a training programme which integrates both theory and the practical skills necessary to join a profession which gives endless satisfaction, as well as personal and professional growth within a trade which is a genuine Italian tradition. [+]

Best Course Studies in Food and Beverage Studies 2017. Three weeks of theoretical and practical lessons carried out by professional teachers to learn the art of making Italian ice cream and strategies to open a store. Possibility to carry out a training period at selected artisans ICIF has created the Academic Laboratory of Master ice cream makers, giving rise to a new training programme: the Ice-cream Course. The course consists of a training programme which integrates both theory and the practical skills necessary to join a profession which gives endless satisfaction, as well as personal and professional growth within a trade which is a genuine Italian tradition. A profession which is in great demand both in Italy and abroad. The Course is in Italian language and teachers are supported by an interpreter in English language. Minimum number of participants: 12. Duration The Course has a total duration of 8 weeks: 3 weeks of theoretical and practical lessons at the Institute 5 weeks of internship (optional) at ice cream parlours previously selected by the Institute, members of the Academic Laboratory of Master ice cream makers Those who can enroll are: Italian and foreign professionals of food and wine Italian and foreign food lovers and enthusiasts Lesson topics Ice Cream: theoretical notions Ice Cream and its origins Ice Cream: artisan and business management Hygiene and HACCP: comprehension and study of health and sanitary regulations and food legislation Marketing and Management of an enterprise: an entrepreneurial approach Design of the Laboratory: study and... [-]

Food Photography

Istituto Italiano di Fotografia
Campus Full time 30 hours July 2017 Italy Milan

An intensive course that aims to provide participants, which already possess the basic photographic techniques, the tools in order to learn the methods, the tricks and the difficulties of professional food photography. The student will learn to plan and organize their own creative process, starting from the idea of the project, then move through the process of the research for the proposed topics, planning for the following operational phases such as shooting, post-production, and finally the elaboration of the final product. The photographers will also have the ability to interact with various figures working in the world of food and professional photography. [+]

With our Early Booking campaign you can obtain a 15% discount on the course fee if you make the full payment by February 28th 2017. An intensive course that aims to provide participants, which already possess the basic photographic techniques, the tools in order to learn the methods, the tricks and the difficulties of professional food photography. The student will learn to plan and organize their own creative process, starting from the idea of the project, then move through the process of the research for the proposed topics, planning for the following operational phases such as shooting, post-production, and finally the elaboration of the final product. The photographers will also have the ability to interact with various figures working in the world of food and professional photography. The practical part will allow to experience the photographic medium with techniques and tools suitable for the type of shooting and the desired image. Students will learn how to build up a set, find the best solutions to create and obtain images in a short time and in a variety of situations. Duration: 18 - 22 July 2016 Frequency: 1 week, 5 days (Monday-Friday) Hours of Instruction: • aproximately 30 hours in total - each day of instruction (outdoor lesson excluded) consists of morning and afternoon sessions Morning session hours: 10:00-13:00 Afternoon session hours: 14:00-17:00 Language of Instruction: English Certificate issued: Certificate of attendance Program summery: Introduction, the food in the history of art and photography Know the food: types, times and ways... [-]

4 Week Essential Skills

Tante Marie Culinary Academy
Campus Full time 4 weeks September 2017 United Kingdom Woking

The Tante Marie 4 Week Essential Skills course is one of the world’s leading cookery courses of this type. [+]

Best Course Studies in Food and Beverage Studies 2017. The Tante Marie 4 Week Essential Skills course is one of the world’s leading cookery courses of this type. During the course students will learn a range of essential, culinary skills across several areas of cookery. Students will leave with the ability to cook good food, for all occasions and in any environment. What you will learn Your course will begin with an introduction to working in a professional kitchen environment, incorporating practical skill development such as knife skills, before moving on to the foundations of basic cookery. Lessons are designed to include recipes and techniques that will build your understanding of how food changes as you cook. This will enable you to make adjustments and correct mistakes as you go on to produce your own recipes and menus. You will be taught in a small group of like-minded students and the majority of your time at the Academy will be spent in our state of the art kitchens. You will gain a comprehensive understanding of areas such as sauces, soups, meat, fish, canapés, pastries, bread….and many, many more! Exams & Assessment There is no assessment or exam on this course. QUALIFICATIONS GAINED Level 2 Award in Food Safety Certificate of Attendance Career Prospects Students who complete the 4 Week Essential Skills in cookery, are well placed to pursue work in numerous kitchen environments. Many graduates choose to apply their new skills whilst working a gap year, while others put them... [-]

Italian Culinary Master

DIEFFE Job's Academy
Campus Full time 6 weeks May 2017 Italy Padua

The course is designed for those who want to improve their knowledge of Italian culinary and gastronomic traditions. We offer a full series of practical cooking, pastry, ice-cream, pizza and bread workshops and an in-depth study of wine and craft beer, focusing on technical and cultural aspects, covered in lesson on food studies, technologies and processing methods. [+]

COURSE OUTLINE Who can apply: Italian and foreign professionals from food and wine industries, Food and cooking professionals and Passionates the course will start with a minimum of 12 and a maximum of 20 students. Duration: 6 weeks of both theory and practical lessons at Dieffe Academy (103 hours) 60 hours of educational apprenticeship for 5 weeks in selected and prestigious restaurants The course is of 6 weeks and it is divided into three different modules: The first consists in classroom and laboratory-based lessons at the Academy’s headquarter The second offers a set of educational trips and experiences in Italian’s main cities, through the most important traditions (culture, gastronomy and agriculture) The third is practical with an apprenticeship in a prestigious restaurant selected by the Academy The course is designed for those who want to improve their knowledge of Italian culinary and gastronomic traditions. We offer a full series of practical cooking, pastry, ice-cream, pizza and bread workshops and an in-depth study of wine and craft beer, focusing on technical and cultural aspects, covered in lesson on food studies, technologies and processing methods. During the lessons students are divided into groups and they will manage preparation of ingredients and execution of recipes according to a rotation system. Students are involved in practical activities which take place in laboratories of cooking, pastries, ice cream, and a brewery. TOPICS Cooking ( 45 hours) Pastry making ( 10 hours) Pizza and bakery ( 10 hours) Ice cream ( 5 hours) Oenology ( 10... [-]

Private Lessons for Pros

Tokyo Sushi Academy
Campus Full time 1 - 10 days April 2017 Japan Tokyo

At your request, we also offer private lessons for beginners to professional chefs. Hours of Private Lesson range from 3 hours a day to 2 weeks. [+]

Best Course Studies in Food and Beverage Studies 2017. PRIVATE LESSON FOR PROS At your request, we also offer private lessons for beginners to professional chefs. Hours of Private Lesson range from 3 hours a day to 2 weeks. CASE 1. BASICS OF EDOMAE STYLE SUSHI Hours One day, a slot of 3 hours between 9am and 6pm Content - How to clean middle-sized fish (Ex. one kind from Young Yellowtail, Salmon, Horse Mackerel) - How to cut out fish - Practice of Nigiri Sushi - Tasting Fee - Starting from 40,000JPY (3hours/day) - *Instruction Fee, Ingredient Costs are included - *If we cannot book an English-speaking instructor, translation fee may be charged separately. - *8% Consumption tax will be added - *Ingredients used in the course may vary depending on the conditions of purchase. CASE 2. BASICS AND APPLICATIONS OF DASHI Hours One day, a slot of 6 hours between 9am and 6pm Content - Explanation about Dashi - Ingredients of Dashi - Techniques to make Dashi - Cooking with Dashi (ex.one to two dishes from Takikomi-gohan [seasoned rice], miso soup, Udon or Soba noodles, Chawan-mushi [egg custard]), - Tasting Fee - Starting from 60,000JPY (6hours/day) - *Instruction Fee, Ingredient Costs are included - *If we cannot book an English-speaking instructor, translation fee may be charged separately. - *8% Consumption tax will be added - *Ingredients used in the course may vary depending on the conditions of purchase. CASE 3. BASICS OF TEMPURA Hours One day, a slot of... [-]

Experiential Learning in Culinary Sciences

UniLaSalle
Campus Full time 10 weeks May 2017 France Beauvais

A unique approach, combining culinary arts, health sciences and professional practice program. [+]

Experiential Learning in Culinary Sciences A unique approach, combining culinary arts, health sciences and professional practice program. WEEK 1: The 1-week language course is recommended for all participants. It is mandatory for the 6-week internship. Previous completion of French 101 or equivalent is encouraged. WEEK 2 & 3: Cooking for Health. These weeks are a package and may not be taken individually WEEK 4: The Ducasse Gastronomic Approach INTERNSHIP: At the end of the full 4-week package, we offer the opportunity to do a 6-week internship in a French restaurant selected by our school. Students who wish to register for the 6-week internship must complete the 4 weeks of experiential learning. DATES Week 1 French: May 18 - 22, 2015 Week 2-3 Cooking for Health: May 25 - June 5, 2015 (may not be taken separately) Week 4 The Ducasse Gastronomic Approach: June 8 - 12, 2015 Restaurant Internship: June 15 - July 24, 2015 Intensive interdisciplinary program Per week = 2 ECTS credits ≈ 1 US credit Certifi cate delivered by UniLaSalle and Ducasse Education for the workshop « The Ducasse Education Gastronomic Approach » Credits earned from UniLaSalle for the workshop « Cooking for Health ». [-]

Catering and Buffet program for the Experienced Cook

Culinary Institute Kul IN
Campus Full time 2 months May 2017 Croatia Sisak

World trends in gastronomy and hospitality are ever more present on the market, and many social, business, and family events are becoming unthinkable without quality professional food and beverage services that can be customized to the needs of the occasion. As part of this intensive 2-month program, students will not only learn various techniques for food preparation and methods for food arrangement, but also professional standards of presentation and food service. The Catering and Buffet program is aimed at individuals who wish to broaden their knowledge and focus their professional career in the direction of catering and buffet. After the course, students can choose to do an internship in Croatia. [+]

Best Course Studies in Food and Beverage Studies 2017. Course: Catering and Buffet for the Experienced Cook The culinary profession offers many options for specialization, and one of these is catering and buffet. World trends in gastronomy and hospitality are ever more present on the market, and many social, business, and family events are becoming unthinkable without quality professional food and beverage services that can be customized to the needs of the occasion. The main objective of catering and buffet is offering an all-inclusive culinary and social experience. As part of this program, students will not only learn various techniques for food preparation and methods for food arrangement, but also professional standards of presentation and food service. The Catering and Buffet program is aimed at individuals who wish to broaden their knowledge and focus their professional career in the direction of the culinary arts, regardless of their current profession. Discover your passion towards gastronomy through Kul IN student network. Other course information: Lesson Schedule: 5 hours/day Monday through Friday Language: Croatian and/or English Learning and Reading Materials: provided by Kul IN Uniforms: provided by Kul IN Upon successful completion, each student will receive a certificate from Kul IN for a Professional Cook of Catering and Buffet. ... [-]

French Chocolate & Confectionery Arts

Ducasse Education - Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Pâtisserie
Campus Full time 7 months April 2017 France Yssingeaux

An intensive 7-month program to learn all the fundamental and elaborated techniques of Chocolate and Confectionery Arts. [+]

Have you always loved making chocolate and confectionery and wondered if this is the career change you are looking for? Ducasse Education gives you the opportunity to take an intensive 7-month program to learn all the fundamental and elaborated techniques of Chocolate and Confectionery Arts. CLASS TYPE Hands-on training in pastry laboratories and applied theory MODULES Fundamentals of confectionery Upscale confectionery Mastering chocolate Chocolate bonbons Initiation to sugar work Pastry and chocolate based Entremets French language courses Food science Applied technology DURATION 7 months: 5-month intensive hands-on training + 2-month mandatory internship [-]

The Edible City

TU Berlin Summer & Winter University
Campus Full time 4 weeks June 2017 Germany Berlin

The course is suitable for students of all levels of study who want to gain theoretical and practical knowledge for the design of food-productive urban space. [+]

Best Course Studies in Food and Beverage Studies 2017. Summer University block 1: June 12th - July 6th, 2017 Course price: 1.850 Euros 18 hours of class sessions per week, 5 ECTS credit points Topic With a focus on urban space and urban space production, this summer course explores how food – in all is aspects from producing to marketing to selling to composting – could become a better-integrated part of our cities. Urban agriculture projects in Berlin will serve as case studies and sites for practical growing/building experience. Target group The course is suitable for students of all levels of study who want to gain theoretical and practical knowledge for the design of food-productive urban space. It is especially suitable for students of architecture, landscape architecture, urban design, urban planning and product design who have an interest in the subject area. Learning Goal/Output Students will develop their theoretical knowledge of the emerging subject areas of urban agriculture and urban food systems and learn about methods to design urban space that has a food focus. They will also develop their skills in particpatory design and building processes by working with selected urban agriculture projects in Berlin. Students are encouraged to record and reflect on their learning by means of sketches, photographs and text. Course Components Teaching will be structured in 4 multi-disciplinary components, each running for 1 week and highlighting a particular aspect of the urban food growing theme. Each week will be introduced by context-setting lectures/seminars. These will be... [-]

Dirección De Empresas Alimentarias (dea)

Instituto Internacional San Telmo
Campus Part time 5 - 7 months September 2017 Spain Sevilla Málaga + 1 more

Se trata del primer Programa de formación alimentaria puesto en marcha por San Telmo, hace ya más de 30 años y por el que han pasado más de 1.400 empresarios y directivos de Andalucía y de toda España. Se ha realizado en Sevilla y en otras ciudades como Jerez, Huelva, Valencia, Madrid, Zaragoza y Bilbao. [+]

Se trata del primer Programa de formación alimentaria puesto en marcha por San Telmo, hace ya más de 30 años y por el que han pasado más de 1.400 empresarios y directivos de Andalucía y de toda España. Se ha realizado en Sevilla y en otras ciudades como Jerez, Huelva, Valencia, Madrid, Zaragoza y Bilbao. Único en España, reúne en un mismo aula a quienes dirigen empresas procedentes de todos los sectores y eslabones de la Cadena Alimentaria, para perfeccionar sus habilidades directivas con la ayuda del Método del Caso (se debaten Casos que se actualizan permanentemente) y compartir experiencias e interrelacionarse. Sus características pueden resumirse en: Global: Abarca todas las áreas de la empresa. Enfoque práctico: Orientado a la acción. De larga duración: 7 meses, frecuencia quincenal -- 5 meses, frecuencia semanal. Con enfoque Internacional: Casos, Profesores, experiencias. Exigente: Participación, esfuerzo continuado. Tutelado (Monitores): Seguimiento personalizado. Enfocado al Negocio: Mundo empresarial agroalimentario. Cadena Alimentaria: Producción, Transformación, Canales y Servicios relacionados. Objetivos El objetivo general del Programa es ayudar a mejorar la gestión de la empresa alimentaria. Para ello se pretende: Perfeccionar las capacidades y habilidades propias de la Alta Dirección: Capacidad de análisis, diagnóstico, formulación de soluciones y alternativas de acción, toma de decisiones y dirección de su ejecución. Mejorar el conocimiento global del sector y la comprensión de los retos del entorno para generar competitividad en la Cadena Alimentaria del siglo XXI, con especial énfasis en: Los retos competitivos de cada uno de sus eslabones (sector primario, industria... [-]

Italian Cooking Course

In Florence Academy
Campus Full time Part time 1 - 20 weeks Open Enrollment Italy Florence + 1 more

The Italian cooking course focus in particular on Tuscan cuisine and at the end of each lesson there is a tasting session. [+]

Best Course Studies in Food and Beverage Studies 2017. Italian Cooking - Basic Course The Basic Italian cooking course consists in the preparation of a complete Italian menu (2 typical Italian dishes + 1 dessert). The Italian cooking course focus in particular on Tuscan cuisine and at the end of each lesson there is a tasting session. Basic course features: Lessons (a week): 5 practical lessons a week (two cooking sessions, every Tuesday and Thursday afternoon) 1 lesson= 50 minutes Entry levels: 0-9 Duration: From 1 to 12 weeks Also available in English. Course price (per week): 70 Eur Enrolment Fee: No enrolment fee will be charged if a student is enrolled in a course of Italian. If the student enrolls in this course without taking a language course there will be a € 15 non refundable enrolment fee. This € 15 fee must be paid only once should the student enroll in more than one additional course (i.e. enrolls in Cucina Italiana, Storia dell’arte, etc.). Italian Cooking - Professional Course The Professional Italian cooking course aims at teaching the art of Italian cooking, starting from the basic techniques to the creation of more elaborate dishes, through the preparation of four dishes during each lesson. Professional course features: Lessons (per week): 8 hands on cooking lessons a week (two sessions) 1 lesson= 50 minutes Entry levels: 0-9 Duration: From 4 to 20 weeks Also available in English Course price: under request Enrolment Fee: No enrolment fee will be charged if... [-]

Hautes Études du Goût de la Gastronomie et des Arts de la Table

Le Cordon Bleu Paris
Campus Full time 2 weeks October 2017 France Paris

The world of gastronomy and the art of fine dining is facing major changes. Consumers are more open-minded, more curious and more demanding about quality, service and information. [+]

Hautes Études du Goût de la Gastronomie et des Arts de la Table ARE YOU READY FOR A UNIQUE EXPERIENCE? The world of gastronomy and the art of fine dining is facing major changes. Consumers are more open-minded, more curious and more demanding about quality, service and information; at the same time, professionals are faced with rapidly evolving careers and have to choose between progressing in their own specialty or changing direction. Hautes Études du Goût provide a unique, multi-disciplinary program which aims at putting forward all the scientific, cultural, sociological and economic aspects of taste, gastronomy and the art of fine dining. After successful completion of the study program, students will be awarded the D.U.G.G.A.T (Diplôme Universitaire du Goût, de la Gastronomie et des Arts de la Table), an official diploma delivered by the Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne. For students within the European Union, 60 ECTS credits (European Credit Transfer System) are associated with the D.U.G.G.A.T. 60 ECTS credits represent a full-time academic year of formal learning in the European system. Classes are given in French and translated into English simultaneously. In addition, students will receive a certificate from Le Cordon Bleu. Articulation between the Hautes Etudes du Goût program and Le Cordon Bleu Master of Gastronomic Tourism: Any Hautes Etudes du Goût/DUGGAT graduate who wishes to further explore their passion for food and wine and enrol in the Master of Gastronomic Tourism program will receive recognition for ONE (1) elective unit of the MGT. 2016 SESSION Ask now... [-]

Course - Management And Administration Kitchen

University College of Hotel Management and Culinary Arts StPOL
Campus Full time September 2017 Spain Barcelona

Course composed of complementary materials that support the management. The subjects of the second part of the study module systematize business processes management, control of costs and returns [+]

Best Course Studies in Food and Beverage Studies 2017. Management and Administration of cuisine: culinary basis for managing the professional kitchen comprising supplementary course materials that support the management. The subjects of the second part of the study module systematize the business process management, cost control and performance, and techniques for managing compras.Presentación: The course starts on 06/10/2014 and ends on 07/11/2014. Course Competencies terminals: a) Document the activity of professional kitchen the historical contributions of gastronomy. b) Document the activity of the professional kitchen in their relations with the biochemical science. c) Knowing participants expand the use and application of wine products in the culinary preparations d) Learn to introduce best practices to systematize the processes of kitchen management. e) Carry out the systematization of processes of different culinary offerings f) Apply the techniques of management of human and material resources, as well as cost control and performance in kitchen g) Good practices of negotiation and provisioning commodities in kitchen. Hours: Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday from 15-20 pm Friday from 9-14 h. Training activities - Classroom learning: lessons explanatory (1.5 hour sessions) (50%) - Directed learning: individual and group work (20%) - Self study: personal study (30%) Grading system: 1) Progressive Evaluation: Active participation in class exercises and assignments and work conducted (80%) 2) Final Assessment: exam or final paper (20%) [-]

The Culinary Apprentice School of the Arts for: 6 month Chef Curriculum

CASA Schools
Online & Campus Combined Full time Part time 6 months Open Enrollment USA Los Angeles New York San Francisco Chicago Atlanta Nashville New York City + 7 more

We offer an all-inclusive apprenticeship (externship) program, which has been precisely designed to assist the student in expanding their food industry knowledge base and culinary skillset. while also enabling them to build high-quality professional connections that can lead to placement and better career building opportunities. The Culinary Apprentice School of the Arts curriculum has been designed to... [+]

We're the school that places you inside a real kitchen, in a location near you, as an apprentice (extern), working under a master chef. The Culinary Apprentice School of the Arts Chef Advantage - 6 month one-on-one training - Learn inside a real restaurant - 100 percent on-the-job instruction - 10500 Tuition Using our tried and tested apprenticeship (externship) method, we match you with a professional chef who will take you through our structured course curriculum and teach you everything you need to know for a rewarding career in the culinary arts. From learning what it takes to prepare exciting dishes to how to appeal to people’s palates, The Culinary Apprentice School of the Arts demonstrates that creating a memorable dining experience is the spirit of a successful culinary education. The Culinary Apprentice School of the Arts places you right in the heat of the action, in an upscale hotel kitchen or catering company, where you will learn recipes, techniques and preparation from people who are actually making a living today from a real restaurant. They believe one of the best ways to learn the culinary arts is on-the-job–and because of our extensive restaurant connections, they are willing to let our students apprentice (extern) in their galleys. The best way to get hired is already be on the inside. That’s exactly where we place you from day one. We offer an all-inclusive apprenticeship (externship) program, which has been precisely designed to assist the student in expanding their food industry knowledge... [-]

General French courses

IFALPES - Institut Francais des Alpes
Campus Full time 1 - 52 weeks Open Enrollment France Annecy

Students work on improving their grammar and vocabulary as well as written and oral comprehension. An emphasis is made on communicating in French. [+]

Best Course Studies in Food and Beverage Studies 2017. Students work on improving their grammar and vocabulary as well as written and oral comprehension. An emphasis is made on communicating in French. They will also study French culture and will take part in varied activities during their lessons: wine and cheese tasting, visits to local markets etc.. The IFALPES accommodation service will find the most suitable type of housing to match your choice. Homestays, shared apartments, studios or dormitories are located in the town centre or in the town outskirts. From the school, they are accessible by bus, bicycle or on foot. Single bedroom in host family halfboard Single bedroom in hostfamily with breakfast Student Residence Individual studios or apartments Shared apartments Levels: Our study levels are in conformity with the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages Beginner No knowledge of the French language. A1 : Elementary Limited knowledge of the French language. Can understand simple and practical information from every day life. Can communicate in a simple way provided the interlocutor speaks slowly. A2 : Upper elementary Basic knowledge. Can understand isolated sentences referring to familiar areas. Can communicate within current situations and describe in simple terms topics of personal interest. B1 : Intermediate Limited but effective command of the language. Can understand clear and standard French referring to familiar matters. Can deal with situations likely to arise while travelling. Can speak about topics of personal interest and give brief explanations about a project or idea. B2 :... [-]